ردیابی تیپ‌های شیمیایی تریکوتسین در جدایه‌های قارچ Fusarium graminearum در گندم‌های استان سیستان و بلوچستان

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل، زابل

2 استادیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی و پژوهشکده زیست‌فناوری کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل

3 استادیار ژنتیک مولکولی، دانشکده پزشکی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زابل، زابل

چکیده

    قارچ Fusariumgraminearumعامل مهم بیماری فوزاریوز سنبله گندم در سرتاسر جهان است. این قارچ مجموعه­ای از تریکوتسین­ها از قبیل دی­اکسی نیوالنول (DON)، نیوالنول (NIV)، را تولید می­کند که برای سلامتی انسان و حیوان مضر هستند. به‌منظور ردیابی ژن­های مؤثر در تولید تریکوتسین­ در جدایه­های­Fusarium graminearum در استان سیستان و بلوچستان، نمونه‌گیری از مزارع گندم در سال‌های زراعی 1390-­1389 انجام گرفت. پس از کشت و خالص­سازی نمونه­ها، با استفاده از کلیدهای شناسایی معتبر برای گونه‌های فوزاریوم، 293 جدایه فوزاریوم متعلق به هشت گونه فوزاریوم جداسازی و شناسایی شد. از بین جدایه­های شناسایی شده فوزاریوم، گونه F.graminearum بیشترین فراوانی (8/68%) را در بین گونه­های دیگر داشت. پس از شناسایی مورفولوژیکی جدایه‌های F.graminearum، تعداد 168 جدایه با استفاده از جفت آغازگرهای اختصاصی (Fg16F/Fg16R) این گونه شناسایی تکمیلی شده و مورد تأیید قرار گرفتند. در این جدایه­ها، وجود سه ژن Tri13، Tri5 و Tri7 با استفاده از روش PCR و آغازگرهای اختصاصی این ژن­ها ردیابی شد. دو تیپ شیمیایی NIV و DON در بین جدایه­های F.graminearum با جفت آغازگرهای اختصاصی این ژن­ها شناسایی شد. نتایج واکنش­ PCR با آغازگرهای اختصاصی نشان داد که تمام جدایه­های آزمایش شده واجد ژن­های مؤثر در تولید تریکوتسین می­باشند. بنابراین ردیابی ژن­های مؤثر در تولید تریکوتسین با استفاده از جفت آغارگرهای اختصاصی مذکور می­تواند در تعیین جدایه‌های فوزاریوم تولیدکننده تریکوتسین جایگزین روش­های شیمیایی پرهزینه و زمان­بر گردد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Detection of Trichothecene Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum Isolates in Wheats of Sistan va Baluchestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Payam Mahmoudi 1
  • S.Kazem Sabagh 2
  • Mahta Mazaheri 3
1 M.Sc. Student of Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol
2 Assistant Professor of Plant Biotechnology, Department of Plant Protection and Institute of Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol
3 Assistant Professor of Molecular Genetic, Faculty of medicine, University of medical science of Zabol, Zabol
چکیده [English]

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important causes of wheat scab in different part of the world. This fungus is able to produce widespread Trichothecene mycotoxin such as Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol which are harmful for both human and animals. The wheat ear samples were collected from wheat fields in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Sampling was performed during 2011-2012. The fungal isolates were separated, purified , then identified using various keys for Fusarium spp. and 293 isolates of Fusarium species belonging to eight species were isolated and identified. Among the identified isolates, F. graminearum showed the highest frequency (68.8%) compared to other species.When the isolates of F. graminearum were morphologically identified, 168 isolates were chosen using species-specific primer pairs (Fg16F/Fg16R). In these isolates, the presence of three genes: Tri13, Tri5 and Tri7 were detected by using PCR and specific primers for the genes. The two NIV and DON chemotype was detected among isolates of F. graminearumusing specific primers. The results of PCR reaction with specific primers showed that all tested isolates possess the genes involved in production of trichothecene. Therefore, the detection of genes involved in trichothecene production using species-specific primers to determine Fusarium isolates producer trichothecene could alternative the chemical expensive and time procedure.

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