تنوع فنوتیپی و ژنتیکی استرین‌های Erwinia amylovora عامل بیماری آتشک درختان میوه دانه‌دار در استان سمنان

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان سمنان (شاهرود)، شاهرود

2 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات بیماری‌های گیاهی، مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، تهران

چکیده

بیماری آتشک با عامل Erwinia amylovora یکی از مهمترین بیماری‌های خسارت‌زای درختان میوه دانه­دار به‌ویژه گلابی و به در استان سمنان است. در طی سال‌های 87 و 88 تعداد 80 استرین E. amylovora از میزبان‌های سیب، گلابی، به و رز از مناطق مختلف استان سمنان جداسازی شد و تعداد 50 استرین از نظر ویژگی‌های فنوتیپی، ژنتیکی و احتمال مقاومت به استرپتومایسین و اکسی کلرور مس مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. براساس آزمون‌های فیزیولوژیکی، بیوشیمیایی و مورفولوژیکی استرین‌های مورد بررسی به‌عنوان گونه E. amylovoraشناسایی شدند. استرین‌های مذکور گرم منفی، بی‌هوازی اجباری، لوان مثبت و قادر به ایجاد واکنش فوق حساسیت روی برگ‌های توتون بوده و در محیط King’s B رنگدانه فلورسنت ایجاد نکردند. براساس خصوصیات فنوتیپی، دامنه میزبانی و مناطق جغرافیایی تعداد هشت استرین برای بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی انتخاب شد که در انگشت‌نگاری به روش rep-PCR با آغازگرهای ERIC و BOX تمامی جدایه‌ها با جدایه مرجع ATCC 49946 هموژن و یکسان بودند. با توجه به نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق مبنی بر عدم ورود استرین‌های مقاوم به آنتی‌بیوتیک و اکسی‌کلرور مس به استان سمنان می‌توان جهت مدیریت این بیماری کماکان از ترکیبات شیمیایی باکتری‌کش موجود در باغات استان استفاده نمود و یکنواختی استرین‌ها کمک خواهد نمود که از یک رویه یکسان در تهیه ارقام مقاوم، پیش آگاهی بیماری و مدیریت تلفیقی آن سود جست. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Erwinia amylovora Strains, Causing Fire Blight Disease of Pome Fruits in Semnan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Zaker 1
  • Farkhondeh Ommati 1
  • Abolghaseme Ghasemi 2
1 Researcher in Plant Diseases, Department of Plant Protection, Shahrood Agricultural Research Center, Shahrood
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Disease Research, Iranian Institute of Plant Protection,Tehran
چکیده [English]

Fire blight of pome fruits caused by Erwinia amylovora is one of the most devastating disease especially on pear and quince in Semnan province. A total of eighty strains were isolated from different localities and hosts including apple, pear, quince and rose during 2006-2007. Fifty strains were studied for their phenotypic characteristics, genotypic variability, pathogenicity and also resistance to streptomycin and cupper oxychloride. On the basis of physiological, biochemical and morphological features, tested strains were identified as E. amylovora. They were Gram negative, formed levan, facultative anaerobic and induced hypersensitivity reaction in tobacco leaves. They did not produce fluorescent pigment on King`s B medium. On the basis of Phenotypic features, host rang and geographical distribution, eight representatives were selected for evaluating the genetic diversity among them, by rep-PCR using ERIC and BOX primers. All strains were identical to ATCC 49946 strain. On the basis of these experiments no resistance to antibiotics and copper oxychloride was found among the E. amylovora strains causing fire blight of pome fruit trees in Semnan province, therefore chemical bactericides can be safely used in an integrated management program of the disease in Semnan province orchards and this similarity may help to follow a similar method in selecting resistant varieties and forecasting of the disease management. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Apple
  • Pear
  • Quince
  • Antibiotic
  • Resistance
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