عنوان مقاله [English]
Salinity is one of the important abiotic stresses, which limit the crop production. In order to study the effect of several salinity levels (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 (dS/m)), exerted by NaCl, on some growth traits of sunflower line and genetic analysis of several traits related to salinity tolerance, A factorial experiment carried out based on RCBD. In this study, some growth traits incuding shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight and root dry weight were evaluated in seedings. Results revealed statistical significant difference among RILs in several salinity levels. To genetic analysis of tolerance to salinity in sunflower seedlings, linkage map of SSR/SNP with 221 markers and average distance of 7.44 CM between markers used. Results of gene mapping manifested 18, 13, 4 and 10 QTLs in salinity levels of 0, 2, 4 and 6 (dS/m) for studied characteristics. In the salinity level of 8 (dS/m) due to lack of germination of seedlings, no QTL was found. The most significant QTLs with high explained phenotypic varition in salinity levels of zero, 2, 4, 6 dS/m were identified for root fresh weight (61.72%), root length (59.34 and 37%) and shoot dry weight (21.39%), respectively. Results showed some co-localized QTLs for several characteristics, which dispersed in some linkage groups. The co-localized QTLs could lead to increase the efficiency of marker-assisted selection in plant breeding programs.
Aastveit, A. H. and Aastveit, K. 1993. Effects of genotype environment interactions on genetic correlation. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 86: 1007-1013.
Abdi, N., Darvishzadeh, R., Hatami Maleki, H., Haddadi, P. and Sarrafi, A. 2013. Identification of quantitative trait loci for relative water content and chlorophyll concentration traits in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, 100: 159-166.
Abdi, N., Darvishzadeh, R., Jafari, M., Pirzad, A. and Haddadi, P. 2012. Genetic analysis and QTL mapping of agro-morphological traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under two contrasting water treatment conditions. Plant Omics Journal, 5: 149-158.
Abdolzadeh, A. and Saffari, N. 2002. Effects of salinity on growth in eleven wheat cultivars based on the accumulation of ions. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 2: 95-103. (In Persian).
Abid, M., Qayyum, A., Dasti, A. A. and Abdilwajid, R. 2001. Effect of salinity and SAR of irrigation water on yield, physiological growth parameters of Maize (Zea mays L.) and properties of the soil. Journal of Research (Science), BahauddinZakariyaUniversity, Multan, Pakistan, 12: 26-33.
Akram, M. S., Athar, H. U. R. and Ashraf, M. 2007. Improving growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by foliar application of potassium hydroxide (KOH) under salt stress. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39: 769-776.
Allinne, C., Maury, P., Sarrafi, A. and Grieu, P. 2009. Genetic control of physiological traits associated to low temperature growth in sunflower under early sowing conditions. Plant Science, 177: 349-359.
Amouzadeh, M., Darvishzadeh, R., Haddadi, P., Abdollahi Mandoulakani, B. and Rezaee Danesh, Y. 2013. Genetic analysis of partial resistance to basal stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in sunflower. Genetika, 45: 737-748.
Asch, F., Dingkuhn, M. and Dorffling, K. 2000. Salinity increases CO2 assimilation but reduces growth in field grown irrigated rice. Plant and Soil, 218: 1-10.
Ashraf, M. and Foolad M. R. 2013. Crop breeding for salt tolerance in the era of molecular markers and marker-assisted selection. Plant Breeding, 132: 10-20.
Basten, C. J., Weir, B. S. and Zeng, Z. B. 2002. QTL Cartographer, version 1.16: Program in Statistical Genetics. Raleigh, NC, USA: North CarolinaStateUniversity.
Bert, P. F., Jouan, I., Dechamp-Guillaume, G., Serre, F., Philippon, J., Nicolas, P. and Vear, F. 2004. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) 3. Characterisation of QTL involved in resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phoma macdonaldi. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 109: 865-874.
Bert, P. F., Jouan, I., Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D., Serre, F., Nicolas, P. and Vear, F. 2002. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). 1. Characterisation of QTL involved in resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Diaporthe helianthi. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 105: 985-993.
Bunyamin, Y., Yaser, F., Oz Pay, T., Turkozu, D., Terziodlu, O. and Tamkoc, A. 2008. Variations in response to salt stress among field pea genotypes (Pisum sativum sp. Arvense L.). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 7: 907-910.
Bybordi, A. and Tabatabaei, J. 2009. Effect of salinity stress on germination and seedling properties in canola cultivars (Brassica napus L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 37: 71-76.
Churchill, G. A. and Doerge, R. W. 1994. Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping. Genetics, 138: 963-971.
Collard, B. C. Y., Jahufer, M. Z. Z., Brouwer, J. B. and Pang, E. C. K. 2005. An introduction to markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted selection for crop improvement: The basic concepts. Euphytica, 142: 169-196.
Darvishzadeh, R., Kiani, P. S., Dechamp-Guillaume, G., Gentzbittel, L. and Sarrafi, A. 2007. Quantitative trait loci associated with isolate specific and isolate nonspecific partial resistance to Phoma macdonaldii in sunflower. Plant Pathology, 56: 855-861.
Davar, R., Darvishzadeh, R., Majd, A., Gousta, Y. and Sarrafi, A. 2010. QTL mapping of partial resistance to basal stem rot in sunflower using recombinant inbred lines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 49: 330-341.
Davar, R., Majd, A., Darvishzadeh, R. and Sarrafi, A. 2011. Mapping quantitative trait loci for seedling vigour and development in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) using recombinant inbred line population. Plant Omics Journal, 4: 418-427.
Eathgton, S. R., Crosbie, T. M., Edwards, M. D., Reiter, R. S. and Bull, J. K. 2007. Molecular markers in a commercial breeding program. Crop Science, 47: 154-163.
Flores Berrios, E., Gentzbittel, L., Kayyal, H., Alibert, G. and Sarrafi, A. 2000. AFLP mapping of QTLs for in vitro organogenesis traits using recombinant inbred lines in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 101: 1299-1306.
Gentzbittel, L., Mestries, E., Mouzey A. R. S., Mazeyrat, F., Badaoui, S., Vear, F., Tourvieille De Labrouhe, D. and Nicolas, P. 1999. A composite map of expressed sequences and phenotypic traits of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 99: 218-234.
Haddadi, P., Ebrahimi, A., Langlade, N. B., Yazdi-Samadi, B., Berger, M., Calmon, A., Naghavi, M. R., Vincourt, P. and Sarrafi, A. 2012. Genetic dissection of tocopherol and phytosterol in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower through QTL analysis and the candidate gene approach. Molecular Breeding, 29: 717-729.
Hahn, V. and Wieckhorst, S. 2010. Mapping and tagging of simply inherited traits. In Hu, J., Seiler, G. and Kole, C. (eds). Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Crop Plants: Sunflower. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, EEUU, ISBN 978-1-57808-676-4, USA, pp. 111-133.
Haldane, J. B. S. and Waddington, C. H. 1931. Inbreeding and linkage. Genetics, 16: 357-374.
Hu, J. 2010. Genetic linkage maps: strategies, resources and achievements. In Hu, J., Seiler, G. and Kole, C. (eds). Genetics, genomics and breeding of sunflower, pp. 79-109.
Hussain, S. A., Akhtar, J., Anwar-ul-haq, M. and Ahmad, R. 2011. Growth, yield and ionic concentration of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes exposed to brackish water irrigation. Soil and Environment, 30: 58-65.
Jan, C. C., Vick, B. A., Miller, J. F., Kahler, A. L. and Butler, E. T. 1998. Construction of an RFLP linkage map for cultivated sunflower. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 96: 15-22.
Kafi, M., Borzoyi, A., Salehi, M., Kamandi, A., Masomi, A. and Nabati, A. 2009. Physiology of enviromental stresses in plants. Jahad Daneshgahi Mashhad. pp 502. (In Persian).
Karimi, N., Soheilikhah, Z., Ghasmpour, H. R. and Zebarjadi, A. R. 2011. Effect of salinity stress on germination and early seedling growth of different safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes. Journal of Ecobiotechnology, 3: 07-13.
Khan, M. M., Javed Iqbal, M. and Abbas M. 2004. Loss of vigour and viability in aged onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 6: 708-11.
Koocheki, A., Hosseini, M. and Nasiri Mahalati, M. 1997. Crop-water relations. Jahad Daneshgahi Mashhad. pp 560. (In Persian).
Leon, A. J., Lee, M. and Andrade, F. H. 2001. Quantitative trait loci for growing degree days to flowering and photoperiod response in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 102: 497-503.
Lu, X. L., Niu, A. L., Cai, H. Y., Zhao, Y., Liu, J. W., Zhu, Y. G. and Zhang, Z. H. 2007. Genetic dissection of seedling and early vigour in a recombinant inbred line population of rice. Plant Scince, 172: 212-220.
Mass, E. V. and Hoffman, G. J. 1977 Crop salt tolerance-current assessment. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering-ASCE, 103: 115-134
Micic, Z., Hahn, V., Bauer, E., Schon, C. C., Knapp, S. J., Tang, S. and Melchinger, A. E. 2004. QTL mapping of Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance in sunflower. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 109: 1474-1484.
Mokrani, L., Gentzbittel, L., Ananza, F., Fitamant, L., Rachid Al Chaarani, G. and Sarrafi, A. 2002. Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci for grain oil content and agronomic traits using AFLP and SSR in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 106: 149-156.
Nasir Khan, M., Siddiqui, M. H., Mohammad, F., Mansoor, M., Khan, A. and Naeem, M. 2007. Salinity induced changes in growth, enzyme activities, photosynthesis, prolin accumulation and yield in linseed genotypes. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3: 685-695.
Noor, E., Azhar, F. M. and Khan, A. L. 2001. Differences in responses of Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties to NaCl salinity at seedling stage. International Journal of Biometeorology, 3: 345-347.
Peres-Vich, B., Akhtoach, B., Knapp, S. J., Leon, A. J., Vlascom, L., Fernandes-Martinez, J. M. and Berry, S. T. 2004b. Quantitative trait loci for broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) resistance in sunflower. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 109: 92-102.
Peres-Vich, B., Fernandes-Martinez, J. M., Grondona, M., Knapp, S. J. and Berry, S. T. 2002. Stearoyl-ACP and oleoyl-PC desaturase genes cosegregate with quantitative trait loci underlying high stearic and high oleic acid mutant phenotypes in sunflower. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 104: 338-349.
Peres-Vich, B., Knapp, S. J., Leon, A. J., Fernandes-Martinez, J. M. and Berry, S. T. 2004a. Mapping minor QTL for increased stearic acid content in sunflower seed oil. Molecular Breeding, 13: 313-322.
Poormohammad Kiani, S., Talia, P., Maury, P., Grieu, P., Heinz, R., Perrault, A., Nishinakamasu, V., Hopp, E., Gentzbittel, L., Panieg, N. and Sarrafi, A. 2007a. Genetic analysis of plant water status and osmotic adjustment in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower under two water treatments. Plant Science, 172: 773-787.
Poormohammad Kiani, S., Grieu, P., Maury, P., Hewezi, T., Gentzbittel, L. and Sarrafi, A. 2007b. Genetic variability for physiological traits under drought conditions and differential expression of water stress-associated genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 114: 193-207.
Poormohammad Kiani, S., Maury, P., Sarrafi, A. and Grieu, P. 2008. QTL analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Plant Science, 175: 565-573.
Poormohammad Kiani, S., Maury, P., Nouri, L., Ykhlef, N., Grieu, P. and Sarrafi, A. 2009. QTL analysis of yield-related traits in sunflower under different water treatments. Plant Breeding, 128: 363-373.
Poormohammad Kiani, S. and Sarrafi, A. 2010. Molecular mapping of complex traits. In Hu, J., Seiler, G. and Kole, C. (eds). Genetics, genomics and breeding of sunflower, pp. 135-172.
Rachid Al-Chaarani, G., Gentzbittel, L., Wedzony, M. and Sarrafi, A. 2005. Identification of QTLs for germination and seedling development in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Plant Science, 169: 221-227.
Rachid Al-Chaarani, G., Roustaee, A., Gentzbittel, L., Mokrani, L., Barrault, G., Dechamp-Guillaume, G. and Sarrafi, A. 2002. A QTL analysis of sunflower partial resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) and black stem (Phoma macdonaldii) by the use of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 104: 490-496.
Sabouri, H. 2010. Mapping of QTLs of germination characteristics in rice using of microsatellite markers under saline condition. Iranian Journal of Biology, 23(3): 333-342. (In Persian).
Seiler, G. and Jan, C. C. 2010. Basic Information. In Hu, J., Seiler, G. and Kole, C. (eds.). Genetics, genomics and breeding of sunflower, pp. 1-50.
Singh, B. R. and Singh, D. P. 1994. Effect of moisture stress on morphological parameters and productivity of Rice. Agro Botanical Publishers India, Bikaner, pp. 241-246.
Stephen, R., Michael, G. L. Z. and Roberts, S. S. R. 2002. Rice is more sensitive to salinity than previously thought. California Agriculture, 56(6): 189-195.
Tang, S., Yu, J. K., Slabaugh, M. B., Shintani, D. K. and Knapp, S. J. 2002. Simple sequence repeat map of the sunflower genome. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 105: 1124-1136.
Tunçtürk, M., Tunçtürk, R., Yildirim, B. and Çiftçi, V. 2011. Changes of micronutrients, dry weight and plant development in canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars under salt stress. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10: 3726-3730.
Veldboom, L. R., Lee, M. and Woodman, W. L. 1994. Molecular marker-facilitated studies of morphological traits in an elite maize population. 2. Determination of QTLs for grain yield and yield components. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 89: 451-458.
Wang, S., Basten, C. J. and Zeng, Z. B. 2010. Windows QTL Cartographer 2.5, Department of Statistics, North CarolinaStateUniversity, Raleigh, NC, USA (Available from http://statgen.ncsu.edu/qticart/WQTLCart.htm).