مکان یابی ژن های کنترل کننده عملکرد دانه و صفات مرتبط با خصوصیات دانه در ژنوم آفتابگردان

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد اصلاح نباتات، گروه اصلاح و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

2 دانشیاران گروه اصلاح و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

3 استاد گروه بیوتکنولوژی و به نژادی گیاهی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز

4 استادیار گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه

5 مربی هنرستان کشاورزی شهید دکتر بهشتی ارومیه، ارومیه

چکیده

یکی از روش­های نوین برای اصلاح گیاهان و تولید ارقام جدید مشخص­نمودن ژن­های کنترل­کننده صفات کمی با استفاده از نشانگرهایDNA  به­منظور استفاده در گزینش به­کمک نشانگر است. در این مطالعه،جمعیت ژنتیکی شامل 70 لاین خویش آمیخته نوترکیب حاصل از تلاقی لاین PAC2 (والد مادری) و لاین RH266 (والد پدری) با هدف شناسایی مکان­های ژنی (QTLهای) مرتبط با عملکرد دانه و صفات مرتبط با خصوصیات دانه از قبیل طول، عرض و قطر دانه، وزن صد دانه و درصد پوسته و درصد مغز دانه در آفتابگردان، در قالب طرح لاتیس مستطیل در دو تکرار کشت گردیدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس طرح لاتیس اختلاف معنی­دار بین ژنوتیپ­ها برای تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه نشان داد. برای شناسایی QTLها، از یک نقشه پیوستگی با 210 نشانگر SSR و 11 نشانگرSNP  با درجه اشباع یک نشانگر در 44/7 سانتی­مورگان استفاده شد. نتایج مکان­یابی ژنی نشان داد که 31 QTL در کنترل ژنتیکی صفات مورد مطالعه نقش دارند. 54 درصد QTLهای شناسایی شده برای صفات مورد بررسی هم مکان بودند. درصد تغییرات فنوتیپی توجیه­شده توسط QTLهای شناسایی شده بین 05/0 الی 13/64 درصد متغیر بود. نشانگر ORS169 با ژن­های کنترل­کننده عملکرد تک­بوته و قطر دانه پیوسته بود. شناسایی QTLهای هم مکان می­تواند باعث افزایش کارآیی انتخاب به­کمک نشانگر و پیشبرد برنامه­های اصلاحی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mapping Genes Controlling Seed Yield and Traits Associated with Seed Characteristics in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome

نویسندگان [English]

  • nader eyvaznezhad ha 1
  • reza darvishzadeh 2
  • iraj bernosi 2
  • mohammd moghadam 3
  • hashem hadi 4
  • mahdi rahimi 5
چکیده [English]

One of the new methods in cultivar development is identification of DNA markers associated with genes controlling traits in order to use in marker assisted selection. In the present work, in order to identify QTLs associated with grain yield per plant andseed characteristics traits such as whole seed length, whole seed width, whole seed diameter, 100- whole seed weight, percentage of seed hull anddehulled kernel in sunflower, 70 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the crossbetween PAC2 × RHA266 together with their parents were evaluated in a rectangular8´9 lattice design with two replications. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all studied traits. QTL-mapping was performed using a recently developed map with 210 SSRs and 11 SNPs with a mean density of 1 marker per 7.44cM. 31 QTLs were detected for the studied traits. 54 percent of identified QTLs were co-localized. The percentage of phenotypic variance (R2) explained by QTLs ranged from 0.05 to 64.13%. The SSR markers ORS169 encompassing the QTLs for grain yield per plant and whole seed diameter could be good candidates for marker assisted selection.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Oily sunflower
  • Recombinant inbred lines
  • Linkage map
  • QTL identification
Aastveit, A. H. and Aastveit, K. 1993. Effects of genotype - environment interactions on genetic correlation. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 86: 1007-1013.

Abdi, N., Darvishzadeh, R., Jafari, M., Pirzad, A. and Haddadi, P. 2012. Genetic analysis and QTL mapping of agro-morphological traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under two contrasting water treatment conditions. Plant OMICS Journal, 5:149-158.

Abdi, N., Darvishzadeh, R., Hatami Maleki, H., Haddadi, P. and Sarrafi, A. 2013. Identification of quantitative trait loci for relative water content and chlorophyll concentration traits in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, 100: 159-166.  

Allinne, C., Maury, P., Sarrafi, A. and Grieu, P. 2009. Genetic control of physiological traits associated to low temperature growth in sunflower under early sowing conditions. Plant Science, 177: 349-359.

Amouzadeh, M., Darvishzadeh, R., Haddadi, P., Abdollahi Mandoulakani, B. and Rezaee Danesh, Y. 2013. Genetic analysis of partial resistance to basal stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in sunflower. Genetika, 45: 737-748.

Basten, C. J., Weir, B. S. and Zeng, Z. B. 2002. QTL Cartographer Version 1.16: Program in Statistical Genetics. Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Cary, USA, pp. 1-189.

Bert, P. F., Jouan, I., Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D., Serre, F., Nicolas, P. and Vear, F. 2002. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). 1.Characterisation of QTL involved in resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Diaporthe helianthi. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 105: 985-993.

Bert, P. F., Jouan, I., Dechamp-Guillaume, G., Serre, F., Philippon, J., Nicolas, P. and Vear, F. 2004. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) 3. Characterisation of QTL involved in resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phoma macdonaldi. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 109: 865-874.

Churchill, G. A. and Doerge, R. W. 1994. Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping. Genetics, 138: 963-971.

Collard, B. C. Y., Jahufer, M. Z. Z., Brouwer, J. B. and Pang, E. C. K. 2005. An introduction to markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted selection for crop improvement: The basic concepts. Euphytica, 142: 169-196.

Darvishzadeh, R., Poormohammad Kiani, S., Dechamp-Guillaume, G., Gentzbittel, L. and Sarrafi, A. 2007. Quantitative trait loci associated with isolate specific and isolate nonspecific partial resistance to Phoma macdonaldii in sunflower. Plant Pathology, 56: 855-861.

Davar, R., Darvishzadeh, R., Majd, A., Gousta, Y. and Sar­rafi, A. 2010. QTL mapping of partial resistance to basal stem rot in sunflower using recombinant inbred lines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 49: 330-341.

Davar, R., Majd, A., Darvishzadeh, R. and Sarrafi, A. 2011. Mapping quantitative trait loci for seedling vigour and development in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) using recombinant inbred line population. Plant OMICS Journal, 4: 418-427.

Eathgton, S. R., Crosbie, T. M., Edwards, M. D., Reiter, R. S. and Bull, J. K. 2007. Molecular markers in a commercial breeding program. Crop Science, 47:154-163.

Flores Berrios, E., Gentzbittel, L., Kayyal, H., Alibert, G. and Sarrafi, A. 2000. AFLP mapping of QTLs for in vitro organogenesis traits using recombinant inbred lines in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 101: 1299-1306.

Haddadi, P., Yazdi-samadi, B., Langlade, N. B., Naghavi, M. R., Berger, M., Kalantari, A., Calmon, A., Maury, P., Vincourt1, P. and Sarrafi, A. 2010. Genetic control of protein, oil and fatty acids content under partial drought stress and late sowing conditions in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). African Journal of Biotechnology, 9: 6768-6782.

Haddadi, P., Ebrahimi, A., Langlade, N. B., Yazdi-Samadi, B., Berger, M., Calmon, A., Naghavi, M. R., Vincourt, P. and Sarrafi, A. 2012. Genetic dissection of tocopherol and phytosterol in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower through QTL analysis and the candidate gene approach. Molecular Breeding, 29: 717-729.

Hahn, V. and Wieckhorst, S. 2010. Mapping and tagging of simply inherited traits. In Hu, J., Seiler, G. and Kole, C. (eds). Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Crop Plants: Sunflower. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, EEUU, ISBN 978-1-57808-676-4, USA, pp. 111-133.

Haldane, J. B. S. and Waddington, C. H. 1931. Inbreeding and linkage. Genetics, 16: 357- 374.

Hittalmani, S., Huang, N., Courtois, B., Venuprasad, R., Shashidhar, H. E., Zhuang, J. Y., Zheng, K. L., Liu, G. F., Wang, G. C., Sidhu, J. S., Srivantaneeyakul, S., Singh, V. P., Bagali, P. G., Prasanna, H. C., McLaren, G. and Khush, G. S. 2003. Identification of QTL for growth and grain yield-related traits in rice across nine locations of Asia. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 107: 679-90.

Hu, J.  2010. Genetic linkage maps: strategies, resources and achievements. In Hu, J., Seiler, G. and Kole, C. (eds). Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Crop Plants: Sunflower. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, EEUU, ISBN 978-1-57808-676-4, USA, pp. 79-109.

Leon, A. J., Lee, M. and Andrade, F. H. 2001. Quantitative trait loci for growing degree days to flowering and photoperiod response in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 102: 497- 503.

Mestries, E., Gentzbittel, L., Tourvielle de Labrouhe, D., Nicolas, P. and Vear, F. 1998. Analyses of quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) using molecular markers. Molecular Breeding, 4: 215-226.

Micic, Z., Hahn, V., Bauer, E., Schon, C. C., Knapp, S. J., Tang, S. and Melchinger, A. E. 2004. QTL mapping of Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance in sunflower. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 109: 1474- 1484.

Mokrani, L., Gentzbittel, L., Ananza, F., Fitamant, L., Rachid Al Chaarani, G. and Sarrafi, A. 2002. Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci for grain oil content and agronomic traits using AFLP and SSR in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 106: 149-156.

Poormohammad Kiani, S., Talia, P., Maury, P., Grieu, P., Heinz, R., Perrault, A., Nishinakamasu, V., Hopp, E., Gentzbittel, L., Panieg, N. and Sarrafi, A. 2007a. Genetic analysis of plant water status and osmotic adjustment in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower under two wa­ter treatments. Plant Science, 172: 773-787.

Poormohammad Kiani, S., Grieu, P., Maury, P., Hewezi, T., Gentzbittel, L. and Sarrafi, A. 2007b. Genetic variability for physiological traits under drought conditions and differential expression of water stress-associated genes in sunflower (Helianthus annulus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 114: 193-207.

Poormohammad Kiani, S., Maury, P., Sarrafi, A. and Grieu, P. 2008. QTL analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Plant Science, 175: 565-573.

Poormohammad Kiani, S., Maury, P., Nouri, L., Ykhlef, N., Grieu, P. and Sarrafi, A. 2009.  QTL analysis of yield-related traits in sunflower under different water treatments. Plant Breeding, 128: 363-373.

Peres-Vich, B., Fernandes-Martinez, J. M., Grondona, M., Knapp, S. J. and Berry, S. T. 2002. Stearoyl-ACP and oleoyl-PC desaturase genes cosegregate with quantitative trait loci underlying high stearic and high oleic acid mutant phenotypes in Sunflower. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 104: 338-349.

Peres-Vich, B., Knapp, S. J., Leon, A. J., Fernandes-Martinez, J. M. and Berry, S. T. (2004a) Mapping minor QTL for increased stearic acid content in Sunflower seed oil. Molecular Breeding, 13: 313-322.

Peres-Vich, B., Akhtoach, B., Knapp, S. J., Leon, A. J., Vlascom, L., Fernandes-Martinez, J. M. and Berry, S. T. 2004b. Quantitative trait loci for broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) resistance in sunflower. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 109: 92-102.

Poormohammad Kiani, S. and Sarrafi, A. 2010. Molecular mapping of complex traits. In Hu, J., Seiler, G. and Kole, C. (eds). Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Sunflower, pp. 135-172.

Rachid Al-Chaarani, G., Roustaee, A., Gentzbittel, L., Mokrani, L., Barrault, G., Dechamp-Guillaume, G. and Sarrafi, A. 2002. A QTL analysis of sunflower partial resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) and black stem (Phoma macdonaldii) by the use of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 104: 490-496.

Rachid Al-Chaarani, G., Gentzbittel, L., Huang, X. Q. and Sarrafi, A. 2004.  Genotypic variation and identification of QTLs for agronomic traits, using AFLP and SSR markers in RILs of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 109: 1353-1360.

Seiler, G. and Jan, C. C.  2010. Basic Information. In: Hu, J., Seiler, G. and Kole, C. (eds). Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Crop Plants: Sunflower. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, EEUU, ISBN 978-1-57808-676-4, USA, pp. 1-50.

Shapiro, S. S. and Wilk, M. B. 1965. An analysis of variance test for normality. Biometrika, 52: 591-599.

Tang, S., Yu, J. K., Slabaugh, M. B., Shintani, D. K. and Knapp, S. J. 2002. Simple sequence repeat map of the sunflower genome. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 105: 1124-1136.

Tuberosa, R., Salvi, S., Sanguineti, M. C., Landi, P., Maccaferri, M. and Conti, S. 2002. Mapping QTLs regulating morpho-physiological traits and yield in drought-stressed maize: case studies, shortcomings and perspectives. Annals of Botany, 89: 941-963.

Veldboom, L. R., Lee, M. and Woodman, W. L. 1994. Molecular marker-facilitated studies of morphological traits in an elite maize population. 2. Determination of QTLs for grain yield and yield components. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 89: 451-458.

Wang, S., Basten, C.J. and Zeng, Z. 2011. Windows QTL Cartographer Version 2.5. Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.